Thursday, October 2, 2014

Family Feuds Can Be Proven

Mother had "No Love" for Fiance
Researching For Family Dynamics
Would you love to know not only your family tree, but the family dynamics? Were there family feuds, tensions, ugly gossip? But how can you get that information for your genealogy project? How does a researcher prove that family members were at odds with one another? The top four family feud research resources are 1) newspapers for local gossip 2) court records - keep an eye out for frivolous lawsuits 3) deed/wills can stipulate relationship demands, or purposely exclude family members, sometimes with an explanation 4) military records. Yes, I said military records.

What Can Be Found In Military Records?
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Who Signed for Minor? The Guardian

Family Correspondence 
Many researchers fail to obtain the full Personnel Service File of their veteran ancestor. Sure, some of those WWI and WWII files are not available due to the 1973 National Archives Fire in St. Louis, but others have been salvaged. And if the file has been preserved, know that it could be the  key to your ancestor’s family life. Did someone other than a parent sign for a minor to serve in the military? Why? Was there a guardian? Have you read the letters from girlfriends, fiances, aunts and other family members. They can be telling.
"Neither the Marine nor Family are on friendly terms with the Mother"
Insurance Beneficiary Papers.  Researchers often overlook the beneficiary papers of the serviceman’s insurance benefits. But actually the assigned beneficiaries can often give cause to raise an eyebrow. Did your single ancestor name a sibling vs. a living parent as beneficiary. 
Response to Estranged Mother
Pension Records.  In the Civil War Pension Record of Nelson Strader (alias Mason), the family's dirty laundry was exposed. It is here that we learn that Nelson thought his wife Mary was mean, and left her for Louisa. The military depositions and affidavits used for the military to untangle the love triangle left the family researchers enough information for a Hollywood movie. Not only did these records proffer family relationships, but they gave us a peek into the community dynamics. 

Kathleen Brandt
 a3Genealogy.com
Accurate, accessible answers

Saturday, September 27, 2014

Researching Orphanages and Children's Homes

Children Institutions in Kansas City 1918 - 1920
Keeping in mind that Kansas City was a railroad station hub, the second largest in the nation, competing only with Chicago, in the 1918-1920 era, know that it also was also a hub for abandoned children and maternity homes.  The 21 April 1919 Kansas City Times article named the following orphanages: The Children’s Home, The Life Line Mission (KS), The Negro Orphans” Home, the Gillis Orphans” Home (MO). However, know that there were plenty more. Many of the children were abandoned without a name or any clue to parentage.

One Well-Known Children’s Home – Life Line Mission
According to the 17 Feb 1918 Kansas City Star newspaper, Life Line Mission was “an institution devoted to the care of children under four years old.”  Turning to local newspapers using the mission names as the keywords, may lead the family researchers to uncovering an ancestor’s past.  The local newspaper may be your key to adoptions and misplaced children research. Plus you may learn a bit more about the law and social practices.

For one, it was clearly illegal to bring destitute persons to Kansas. A 12 Feb 1918 Kansas City Times article gives details on the arrest of Dr. Hartman for bringing three “destitute persons” - two women and a baby- to Rosedale, KS. Dr. Hartman owned a maternity home in the Rosedale township (later part of Kansas City, Kansas) that borders the Kansas City, MO. state line. But much more can be learned about the children’s home that Hartman used to drop off several children.   

Children of Life Line Mission: 1918-1920
A Kansas City Star and Kansas City Times keyword search for Life Line Mission from 1918 - 1920 proffered several children’s names.

Francis, Jack and Wallace, 20 July 1920, Kansas City Times, Three Babes Want A Home. One is 5 years old (Francis), Another Blue-Eyed and Chubby; Third Seldom Cries,  Jack and Wallace were not yet one year old. Both Jack and Wallace were left at Union Station (KCMO) “The mother of Wallace is known…” Ten month old Jack is dark complexion, with black eyes and dark brown hair “He was given to a woman to hold and she found she had a baby on her hands that did not belong to her.”  pg. 11, Co 1.  Wallace’s mother was 18 years old with black hair and dark eyes and small of stature and visits her son. Three month old “Wallace is blue eyed a [?] blond and fat.”

Emanuel Lissner, 15 Oct 1918, Kansas City Times. …the 3 year old son of Louis Lissner died yesterday of pneumonia at the Life Line Mission, Kansas. He had a sister Gertrude Lisner. Funeral services held at home of Albert Lissner, 1323 Summit St. Buried in Elmwood Cemetery.

Stultz children 27 Feb 1919, Kansas City Times. Belle, 5 years old, Beulah 3 years old. Seek Father of Two Children. Homes for Kiddies Will Be Obtained if Relatives Are Not Found. Father Lem Stultz. Mother died of influenza.

William J. Harvey, 29 Sept 1919, Kansas City, Times.  William J. Harvey about 5 months old was left on a porch with a note and a bundle of clothes. His father was “lost in the service.”

Infant Child Sydnor, 9 Feb 1920, Kansas City Times. Mrs. Jessie Sydnor’s Child Ill at Life Line Mission (KS). Mother Jessie Sydnor.

Peter Lyons, 28 Aug 1919, Kansas City, Times. Peter Lyons, four year old son of Mrs. May Lyons was at the Mission for one week. While his mother was sick, he was to stay with his aunt, sister of May Lyons, Mrs. Wm. Hunter.  However, he “became lost.” Peter was found wandering the street, but was returned to his mother.

Striegel Keota Eagle, Keokuk County, Iowa, 11 April 1918. Elmer Pipes grandson of Mrs. Striegel of Keota, Iowa.  He was kidnapped by his mother, Louise Pipes Quinette. Father [I or J] S Pipes. I. S. Pipes divorced his wife 4 years prior. Note: appears as Pipes, may read Piper.

Other Places to Research
The Missouri Valley Special Collections is chocked full of hints, tips and surprises.  In narrowing 1920’s children’s home, we turned to the Jackson County Institutional Homes documents that provides us with the Jackson County institutions [under the direct control of the County Court," including the "McCune Home for Boys, Jackson County Home for the Aged and Infirm, the Jackson County Girls' Parental Home, the Jackson County Home for Aged and Infirm Negroes, the Jackson County Home for Negro Boys, the Detention Home. This collection includes the photos.

Adult Residences
Of course not all housing institutions were for children. The Helping Hand Institute was an institution at 523 Grand Avenue in Kansas City, MO for "worthy homeless men" and some women and children not able to find work. Again, the newspaper will be the researcher’s friend.

Kathleen Brandt
a3Genealogy.com
Accurate, Accessible Answers. 

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Did Americans Volunteer with the Royal Air Force?

American's and RAF, WWII
Royal Air Force (RAF) and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)
After the 2013 airing of the Minnie Driver’s episode of the British, Who Do You Think You Are? two recurring questions popped up in our a3Genealogy email: 1) Were there Americans in the Royal Air Force (or Royal Canadian Air Force)?, and 2) Were there men of color who served with these forces?

Background of Americans in the RAF and RCAF
Even before America entered WWI in 1917, over 300 American citizens pretending to be Canadians were members of the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Royal Air Force. Many of the RAF service records, 1918-1919 may be found in the UK at The National Archives.

Many researchers, European, African and American, may find that their ancestor, like that of Minnie Driver, of Season 5, Who Do You Think You Are? (TLC), served with the either the Royal Air Force (RAF) or Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) during WWII.  American servicemen in the RAF and RCAF during the WWII era risked their American citizenship by joining these forces. (They were later pardoned).

Eagle Squadron American Pilots
About 250 Americans joined the Eagle Squadrons, others were enlisted through mercenary Colonel Charles Sweeney’s American squadron, or were actively recruited through the Clayton Knight Committee. It is said the Clayton Knight Committee recruited as many as seven thousand Americans for the RAF and Royal Canadian Air Force, but the exact number of Americans who served with the Royal Air Force and Royal Canadian Air Force is difficult to pinpoint, since many pretended to be Canadians and even South Africans before America “entered the war in December 1941.”

7 Places to Research Your RAF and RCAF Veteran
Researchers will find that having service numbers will assist on this pursuit. Included are a few indexes below that may be useful:
  1. One of the best places to begin your research is with the Royal Air Force Museum.  
  2. Be sure to also visit the National Churchill Museum.
  3. An often overlooked site for RAF research from 1918-1939 is FindmyPast. This database contains “almost 343,000 airmen, who were born in over 30 countries.”
  4. The National Archives (UK) may assist the family historian with earlier Royal Air Force personnel research. 
  5. For an index of RCAF personnel between 1914-1945, visit the Air Force Association of Canada. An index of the 379 Americans bombers that served with the RCAF can be found at the Bomber Command Museum, Canada.  These bombers are honored on Canada’s Bomber Command Memorial.
  6. The Library and Archives, Canada, holds all military service records.  (username/ password NOT needed). http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/military-heritage/second-world-war/Pages/introduction.aspx
  7. Fold3 has a collection of photos of American RAF servicemen being conferred by the President of the United States of America. (Servicemen are identified). Begin your photo search by scrolling through the RAF Ceremonies and Decorations.
Johnny Smythe, RAF
Men of Color with the RAF
Clearly men of color was allowed to serve with the RAF.  Johnny Smythe, Sierra Leone, was just one who volunteered and served with the RAF.

An exhibit “RAF and the Commonwealth” shares stories of African, Asian and Carribean airmen and women’s contributions to the RAF. 

Kathleen Brandt
a3genealogy.com
Accurate, accessible answers

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Wagon Train Research (Part 2)

Westward Bound - Not Just Oregon
We know there were wagon trains. As was illustrated in the tracing of Kelsey Grammer’s Who Do You Think You Are? episode (Season 5), extended families packed their belongings, and carried their personal wealth overland to reach the newly opened west lands. Sometimes, families were left behind, as the pioneer travelled with a wagon train.  This westward migration  wasn't just for those panning for gold.  There were the Mormon's escaping persecution, the future vintner wanting rich soil, and those who made a living in transport. 

4 Research Tips / Hints
Manuscripts
Not every family researcher will find Great-Grandpa's passage recorded in diaries, or even his name.  But, by narrowing his year, and month of travel, you may find his experience recorded through the eyes of his neighbors and friends:  
  • Analyze diaries from his hometown.
  • Follow the path and his final settlement to determine his passage.
  • Track Military Forts' activities along the route. The military controlled the trails, and would detain small groups travel for safety.  This may have delayed your pioneers trip.


Remember others traveled by water. The trip from Louisiana up the Mississippi River was still arduous, but may have been your ancestor’s best option if they were not travelling with a large wagon train through hostile territories. Newspaper accounts are a great resource of those who arrived west.

Resources and Database

A key resource to begin your ancestor’s westward migration is the State Historical Society of Missouri, Manuscript Collection. a3Genealogy researchers proved that a religious "group," Bethel Community, occupied settlements in both Missouri and Oregon by locating the letters that leader, William Kiel, wrote to his congregation back home in Missouri from 1855-1870.  He even threatened to excommunicate ("bar them from the Bethel Community") a few Missourians for raising the Union flag, and endangering the community. Interestingly enough, he was writing from his new Bethel Community in Oregon.  The letters were filled with historical data, names of members and religious practices.[1]





9 Helpful links:
  1. One of our favorite websites: Oregon - California Trails Association holds over 48 thousand pioneers in their database.
  2. The Oregon Genealogical Society and Idaho Genealogical Society have a listing of names in their Pioneer Certificate programs.
  3. For FAQs, visit the Bureau of Land Management Website
  4. For a list of Oregon Trail Historic Sites visit Legends of America http://www.legendsofamerica.com/we-oregontrail.html
  5. The Oregon Territory and Its Pioneers
  6. Oregon Trail Histories
  7. Oregon State Archives. This can be most helpful when looking for land records.
  8. The ancestry.com California, Pioneer and Immigrant Files, 1790-1950 database holds 10,000 records with biographical information about pioneers who arrived in California before 1860.
  9. Find A Grave, Along The Oregon Trail Cemetery Tombstone project.
African Americans Headed West
The overland journeys were before the Civil War.  Free-coloreds, as  many as 3000 by 1850, found their way to California from the onset of the gold rush, but rarely settled in the unwelcoming Oregon. Review the Black Laws of Oregon 1844-1857

Even though some slaves were carried by their masters, many found the westward journey as an integral step to their escape plan. If you need to refresh your history of the role African Americans played during this westward movement, you may wish to read Blacks in Gold Rush California, by Rudolph M. Lapp.  

Another great resource is the Negro Trail Blazers of California by Delilah L. Beasley; original 1818; reprinted 1969.

 [1] Kiel, Wm., Letters 1855-1870; Bethel Community to Oregon 24 Jun 1855; microfilm, Western Historical Manuscript Collection, UMKC

Kathleen Brandt
a3Genealogy.com
Accurate, accessible answers

3 Steps to Oregon Trail Pioneer Research

Over the Oregon Trail
Over 350,000 pioneers travelled the Oregon Trail, often leaving Independence or St. Joseph, Missouri to arrive at their Oregon City, Oregon destination. The route was not carved in stone, and ancestors may have begun their migration from an eastern state, or even Kansas, Iowa or Nebraska. Read more about common routes at FamilySearch the Oregon Trail.

But, like Kelsey Grammer on Who Do You Think You Are? Season 5, you too may be able to trace your ancestor’s Oregon Trail passage. But how do you find records that detail their cross country passage?  Their method of passage?  Your ancestor's experience?

Step 1: Learn the Trails

It is possible your ancestor traveled overland, by water, or partly by rail.  A good source to understand their choices may be answered in John Unruh, Jr.'s book The Plains Across; The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840-1860.  It is possible that Great-Grandpa left Illinois with his four (4) brothers, but only two (2) settled in California.  The remainder of the party may have ended their journey in Salt Lake, or may have taken any other fork in the trail.

Many of our pioneers made several trips overland.  We may be able to confirm their one-way trips to California, but how did they return to Missouri?  Did you know that many returned to the Mid-west through Panama - Isthmus!  Be sure to check any ship records going to Louisiana ports from San Francisco or other west coast ports. 

Step 2: Search for Your Ancestors in Writings
What did five (5) month travelers do?  Many recorded their journeys in diaries and letters back home, detailing the trip.  Sometimes the diaries are filled with gruesome details as the writer recalls on paper a companion's demise. Sometimes the accounts are so detailed they read like a novel.  Sometimes they just follow a train of thought, or confirm a reader's suspicion. Be sure to take a look at this bibliography of books and articles.

4 Common Places to Find Diaries?
1) The Oregon-California Trails Association (OCTA) hosts of Paper Trail, an online database Guide to Overland Pioneer Names and Documents is a great place to begin your diary, manuscript, and written information search.
It is subscription based, but the initial search is free.  This database will GUIDE you to the correct repository. You cannot download the diary from this location, but it leads you to where to go using a surname search.
2) The Merrill J. Mattes Reseearch Library at the National Frontier Trails Museum. I must say, spending a day with this concentrated selection of wagon train resources, makes me smile. 
3) University of Oregon Manuscripts Collections for diaries and pioneer manuscripts.
4) Local Histories and Newspapers detail wagon trains and their departure (it was both exciting and devastating to communities and families).  Small-town newspapers also reprinted letters sent "home" for the community to read; sometimes enticing others to follow, and just as frequently warnings of the danger.

Step 3: Scour Populated Databases and Collections
Besides our favorite websites: Oregon - California Trails Association that names over 48 thousand pioneers in their database, be sure to visit the Oregon Genealogical Society and Idaho Genealogical Society. Their collections hold a listing of names in their Pioneer Certificate programs.
Visit Oregon Pioneer List (OPL) for settlers in Oregon prior to 1900.
The Oregon Archives, Early Oregonian Search is a great place to begin your ancestral search for ancestors who lived in Oregon prior to its 1860 statehood. .

African Americans on the Trails?
Black Pioneers and Settlers
Know that “territorial laws in the 1840s dictated the expulsion of African Americans, and the state constitution similarly prohibited African Americans from residence, a provision not repealed until 1926 and 1927. The laws were a deterrent to black migration” (Oregon Historical Society). However, African Americans did travel on the trail and settle in Oregon . Be sure to review the End of the Oregon Trail: Black Pioneers and Settlers and Salem Oregon Online History, African Americans in Salem.

For more information on tracing your Westward Pioneer, visit Wagon Trail Research, Part 2.
Kathleen Brandt
a3Genealogy.com
Accurate, accessible answers
(extracted from a3Genealogy:Wagon Trains 1840-1960, posted 13 May 2011)

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

7 Research Tips - Are You Royalty?

King & Queens of England
The Royalty In You
The Who Do You Think You Are? Season 5 episode  with Valerie Bertinelli (TLC) has once again sparked interests in American Royalty. It actually began before the 13 Aug airing of the show, just by the short preview of Bertinelli looking at a Coat of Arms pedigree chart. So as promised, we are offering a few suggestions to begin your Royal research. 

Where to Start?
Can you trace your lineage to George III or even one of the 5000 plus trees posted on MyHeritage? It sounds like a daunting feat, but George III reigned from 1760 to 1820; pretty recent. His great-grandchildren lived as late as the 1950’s. If you can’t connect to one of them, don’t forget the offsprings of his many illegitimate grandchildren. And of course there’s more to Royalty, than the British.

At a3Genealogy, this year alone, we have confirmed four Royal Connections for clients (plus one for the media) by initiating our research using the Royal Ancestry: A study in Colonial & Medieval Families by Douglas Richardson which identifies “over 250 individuals who emigrated from the British Isles to the North American colonies in the 17th centuries.” Of course, in this day and age, we usually are able to solidify our findings with DNA tests results. Other sources, like The Royal Collection on ancestry.com, may also help with your initial research. 

Top 7 Hints / Tips to Researching Royalty and Coat of Arms
  1. Burke’s Peerage. What does Britain, Spain and Moraco, ...(and all other) royal research have in common? They  usually begin with Burke’s Peerage which is the foundation of most royal research. The goal is to take your family tree from America and connect to established Royal genealogies. Serious researches turn to the New England Historic Genealogical Society (NEHGS) to stay abreast of "royal and noble genealogy."
    Ancestry.com has the Burke’s Family Records that “records the genealogy of the junior houses of British nobility, and the Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage Genealogical and Heraldic, Vol 2” which may also be helpful in launching your Royal research.
    Coat of Arms and Pedigree (Author's file)
  2. Coat of Arms Review. As seen on the Valerie Bertinelli episode of Who Do You Think You Are? (Season 5, TLC), a coat of arms pedigree chart is quite the treasure. But, bee sure to understand Heraldic Practices before adopting a coat of arms. This article, Coat of Arms and Family Research, may keep you from making common errors in your genealogy.
  3. Land Deeds' Secrets.  Be sure to check wills, and probates, but especially land deeds. The long practice of our ancestors gifting property to illegitimate children has always been a welcoming find for making genealogical connections.
  4. Surname Analysis. When researching for one of the media outlets, a common practice for a3Genealogy researchers is to search for “Royal” surname matches with that of celebrities, dignitaries and ancestors. You don’t even have to reach that far. Ellen De Generes is Kate Middleton’s 14th cousin twice removed.  Read What do Kate Middleton, George Washington and Ellen DeGeneres have in common? And, in 2008, Sarah Palin was proven to be the 10th cousin to the late Princess Diana.  
  5. DNA Projects.  Did you know a DNA study on the surname of Stewart/Stuart proved that over half the men carrying that surname were descendants of Scotland’s Royal dynasty?  Be sure to review the Surname DNA Journal: Y-DNA of the British Monarchy
  6. Connecting with Society Members. Connecting to Royal ancestors is not new. The interest to create or maintain relationships has not only been a practice, but practically an obsession through the years. Review the Sovereign Colonial Society Americans of Royal Descent, Pennsylvania, founded in 1867 which includes descendants of all Royal Houses, medieval and modern. A proposal (for invitation to the Society) must prove one “is a descendant of one or more Kings through" an American ancestors.
    Baroness Lacaze, Ship Manifest
  1. Titles on Official Documents. Birth Records, Naturalization Records, and Passenger Lists and other official documents may announce your Baroness! This year one maternal grandmothers was recorded as a German Baroness, the other was French. Often titles were dropped in America, but with proper sleuthing, the genealogists, may find just the document needed to prove royalty. Lucky break for these American descendants? Perhaps. But it’s the luck of “no stone unturned.”
African American European Royalty Connection
In spite of much controversy, the connection of Queen Charlotte, wife of King George III, to the  Portuguese Royal House of Moorish descent is well known.  However, many would argue that at best, Queen Charlotte was the second “Black” Queen, the first being Queen Philippa, the wife of King Edward III, and also of Moorish descent.

We are sure the doubts and denials will continue in spite of Moorish rule and connections in various European dynasties, and historical arguments and proof. Yet, in spite of the Queen Charlotte controversy, there are so many other African American connections to royalty due to offsprings born in slavery, miscegenation, and the abundance of mulatto bloodlines. With proper genealogical research and DNA, African Americans can also prove their European Royal bloodlines.

Kathleen Brandt
a3Genealogy
Accurate, accessible answers

15 Ways to Crack Your Quaker Conundrum

Quaker Testimonies, Earlham School of Religion
Researching Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)
If you’ve already uncovered your Quaker connection, you have probably come to the realization that Religious Society of Friends Church Minutes and records (what great records they have) is the best source for beginning Quaker genealogical research. And, like Valerie Bertinelli, (who had Quaker ancestors - see episode 5 of Season 5, Who Do You Think You Are? TLC) - you are probably on your way to uncovering fascinating histories of your ancestors. 

But for the beginner Quaker researcher, you may easily become overwhelmed with the plethora of sites dedicated to Quaker research.  So the a3Genealogy researchers have chosen to share their favorite Quaker research websites and links.  If you are beginning your Quaker research, be sure to start with the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). This may also help discern myths from facts. Our favorite client story was explaining that even Missouri (yes, Missouri to my client’s disbelief) had Quakers! He was convinced they only resided in Pennsylvania.

15 Favorite Sites
History and Practices
History and Practices
1.      FAQs About Quakers. Our goal is not for you to convert, but to have some understanding of your ancestor’s practices. Be sure to read the Quaker History on the Friends General Conference website.
2.      History of Quakers. This Wikipedia site is cited with References, Readings and Primary Sources, as well as External Links.
3.      List of Quakers. This Wikipedia site  that“list[s] notable people associated with the Religious Society of Friends” may assist  the researcher in making a family connection.  With the help of this list, we have connected clients to colonial ancestors, politicians, and contrary to traditional practices, soldiers.  

Historical U. S. Quaker Sites 

Quaker Monthly Meeting Records Philadelphia, 1762-1764
4.      Quaker Information Center. Although not comprehensive, this site provides a “short list of historical sites in the U. S.
5.      Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) Genealogical Historical RecordsThis online Research Guide holds the location of Quaker records at the Family History Library, and other Historical Societies and Libraries. But, be sure to visit the Family History Library (FHL) 2600+ sources of monthly meetings, wills (and abstracts of wills), books, and microfilmed family histories.
6.      Historical Societies. Be sure to visit the local historical society. Valerie Bertinelli’s Quaker ancestors lived near Scranton, PA. With help from the Lackawanna Historical Society researchers she was able to find information at the Catlin House headquarters.

College Libraries, Archives & Museums
7.      Swarthmore College.  Quaker History & Genealogy at the Swarthmore College Friends Historical Library
8.      Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections. We particularly appreciate the Digital Archives of the Haverford College collection (5128 digitized images). But, be sure to also review the Swarthmore College Digital Archives  of 2894 digitized images. . 
9.      Cyndi’s Lists. This compilation of Quaker dedicated repositories and libraries guides the researcher to special collections and manuscripts as well as books.

Obituaries
10.  The Earlham College Library provides the American Friend Index of Obituaries online.

Favorite Book and Diaries
11.  Bryn Mawr Quaker Journals and Diaries. “This collection consists of Quaker manuscript books of all descriptions - journals, diaries, commonplace books, scrapbooks, account books, memorandum books, collections of letters, typewritten copies, and other miscellaneous items.”

Ancestry.com Affiliates
14.  The Quaker Corner. This Rootsweb repository of resources boasts over 1200 subscribers to their Quaker Roots discussion group and mailing list.

15.  Research Guide to Finding Your Quaker Ancestors. This ancestry.com Research Guide is chocked full of examples. We particularly like the clarification on “Quaker Dates” and “Abbreviations” used in Quaker meeting minutes. 

African Americans Quakers
Historians are constantly sharing stories of the Quaker’s stand on slavery, Quaker abolitionists and Quaker schools for Black students, but rarely do we trace African-American Quakers. Here are a few sites to peruse on the topic:
18 April 1622 Wirtten Slavery Protest, PA
Kathleen Brandt
a3Genealogy.com
Accurate, accessible answers